The 31st Alabama Infantry Regiment was organized at Talladega, 16 March 1862, with men from Calhoun, Cherokee, Montgomery, Randolph, Shelby, and Talladega counties. It reported to Gen’l Danville Leadbetter at Chattanooga shortly after. It then moved up to Knoxville, where it was brigaded under Gen’l Seth Barton, in Carter Stevenson’s Division. The regiment was at the investment of Cumberland Gap, and it took part in the fight at Tazewell. With Gen’l E. K. Smith’s column, it was in the Kentucky Campaign, without coming up with the enemy. When the forces came back, it was permanently brigaded with the 20th, 23rd, 30th, and 46th Alabama regiments, under Gen’l Edward D. Tracy of Madison, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana. In December, the 31st accompanied Stevenson’s Division to Vicksburg. In May 1863 it helped defend Port Gibson, Mississippi, where the regiment suffered severely. It fought at Baker’s Creek, and the loss was heavy. As part of the Vicksburg garrison, the regiment suffered through the siege, and after losing a number killed and wounded, it was surrendered with the fortress. Placed in parole camp at Demopolis, the 31st was soon exchanged. With Gen’l Edmund Pettus in command of the brigade, the regiment joined the Army of Tennessee, and it was engaged with slight loss at Mission Ridge. It wintered at Dalton, and it participated in the campaign from Dalton to Atlanta.
The regiment followed Gen’l John Bell Hood into Tennessee and sustained severe losses at Columbia and Nashville, and was the rear-guard of the retreating army. Transferred to North Carolina, the regiment was hotly engaged at Bentonville, and a fragment of the 1100 with which it entered the service surrendered at Greensboro, as part of Pettus’ Brigade. There were 260 effectives in January, 1863, with 21 k and 37 w at Vicksburg. There were 23 casualties at Chattanooga, and in December, 1863, there were 452 present with 323 arms. Only 180 were fit for duty in January 1865, and less than 100 surrendered in April. Toward the close of the war, the 31st was consolidated with the 23rd and 46th Infantry and redesignated the 23rd Consolidated Infantry Regiment at Smithfield, 9 April 1865.
Field and staff officers: Col. Daniel Robinson Hundley (Madison; wounded, Port Gibson; captured, Port Gibson, Big Shanty, Georgia); Lt. Col. Thomas Mann Arrington (Montgomery); Major George W. Mattison (Talladega; transferred to line duty); John W. Shorter (Georgia; captured, Champion’s Hill; resigned); and William M. Garrard (Georgia)
Captains, and counties from which the companies came:
- Co. “A” (Cherokee County; some of company paroled as of Co. “K”, 23rd AL Infantry, Consolidated): Isaac P. Moragne (resigned, 13 Aug 62); Henry W. Pickens (resigned, 30 March 63); W. L. Hughes (wounded, Jonesboro)
- Co. “B” (Talladega County; also called Co. “A”; company paroled as part of Co. “K”, 23rd AL Infantry, Consolidated): William S. Chapman (resigned, 26 Sept 62); Robert A. Hardie (resigned, 12 Dec 63); William H. Hancock (transferred); William J. Rhodes (wounded, Kinston, Bentonville)
- Co. “C” (Cherokee County; also called Co. “B”): Marshal J. Alexander (resigned, 28 Aug 62); Joseph J. Nix (wounded, Champion’s Hill, Jonesboro; captured, Champion’s Hill; resigned, 26 April 63 and March 65)
- Co. “D” (Calhoun County; evidently became Co. “G”, 23rd AL Infantry): E. T. Thompson; (dropped from rolls, 2 June 64); John Rose (paroled as Capt., Co. “G”, 23rd AL Infantry)
- Co. “E” (Talladega County; also called Co. “D”): Archibald Carter (resigned, 27 Aug 62); G. W. Watts (resigned, 19 Nov 63); Frank M. Shouse
- Co. “F” (Talladega County; also called Co. “E”): Robert M. McKibbin
- Co. “G” (Shelby County; also called Co. “K”; mustered 22 March 62 as Cobb’s Co., Frazer’s 23rd AL Infantry, and on 4 May 62 as Cobb’s Co., Hundley’s 31st AL Infantry): James Cobb (resigned, 2 Sept 62); William H. Shelby (resigned, 21 Nov 63); Robert B. Pruitt
- Co. “H” (Randolph County): Augustus A. West (resigned, 27 Aug 62); Andrew J. Reeves (resigned); James L. Williams (captured, Missionary Ridge)
- Co. “I” (Montgomery County): John M. Shields (resigned, 10 Sept 62); Thomas M. Arrington (promoted); L. W. Vick
- Co. “K” (Shelby County; some of the company finally paroled as Co. “H”, 23rd AL Infantry, Consolidated): Norman P. Reeves (appointed, surgeon); John W. Pitts (resigned, 10 Nov 62); Samuel W. Morgan (dropped from rolls, 17 June 64); J. T. McClanahan