Category Archives: Hood’s Retreat
Chaplain the 90th Ohio Infantry writes of Hood’s retreat and Confederate dead after Franklin
The following letter was retrieved online on October 6, 2018 (Cowan’s Auction)
William C. Holliday (1838-1921) was born in Adams County, Ohio. The Minutes of Ohio Annual Conference of Methodist Episcopal Church described him as a “local preacher” as early as 1855. Holliday enlisted on December 21, 1863, as a chaplain and was commissioned into Field & Staff OH 90th Infantry. Holliday mustered out on June 13, 1865 at Camp Harker, TN.
Franklin Tenn Dec 18, 1864
1st Division Hospital 4 AC
Yesterday morning we moved easily in the AM. Our troops had moved rapidly after the panic stricken and fleeing rebels about four miles. It was night. They slept on the mud and under the rain. It rained all day – but this Army is so flushed with victory that they did splendid marching – though tired and worn from two days incessant fighting and almost sleepless nights. We came about fifteen miles. Rebels are still going. It is the greatest victory of the war….”
And writing to his wife from the Field Hospital ….
Six Miles North Columbia Tenn.”[Dec 19]
It is about 7oclock PM. I sent you a very brief letter on the 18 at Franklin. On this same day we marched about 14 miles through the rain. At Franklin I had an opportunity of circling over the battlefield. The rebels suffered terribly. They assaulted our works and were killed by the hundred. I counted on one side the pile over three hundred and fifty graves. There were as many on the other side…”
Hood’s Retreat – December 17, 1864
On the night of December 16th, the Confederate rear guard under Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee camped about seven miles north of Franklin. The soldiers were weary and poorly supplied as in their rush to retreat from Nashville, many had abandoned their equipment and muskets along the way. On the rainy morning of December 17th, the Confederates left around dawn. As they marched toward Franklin, Lee’s men had two encounters with Federal troops. The first took place around Hollow Tree Gap about five miles north of Franklin and consisted of a brief volley of fire at a portion of Union Major General James Wilson’s advanced cavalry. A more serious action occurred around 9:00 a.m. as two mounted Federal regiments attempted a frontal charge on the Confederate line. The Con- federate troops, however, were able to repulse the attack, which resulted in twenty-two Federal casualties and an additional sixty-three captured. As more Federal troops advanced, Lee’s rear guard withdrew around 10:00 a.m. to press on to the Harpeth River and into Franklin.
Two bridges spanned the Harpeth River offering quick passage into Franklin – a temporary pontoon bridge and a railroad trestle bridge near Fort Granger. By 10:30 a.m., the last of the Confederate wagons were crossing the bridges over the Harpeth River and troops had begun to disassemble the pontoon bridge when Wilson’s cavalry attacked. Brigadier General Randall Gibson’s Brigade of 500 Louisiana infantrymen was positioned near the river and the railroad overpass at Liberty Pike. Assisting Gibson was a portion of Brigadier General Abraham Buford’s cavalry and two field guns. The Confederate soldiers were no match, however, for the nearly 3,000 Federal cavalry. Buford’s cavalry was driven “in confusion into the river,” which was quickly rising due to the rainy weather. Surrounded, Gibson’s men fought back and sustained forty casualties before escaping. Panic and confusion reigned as men fled across the pontoon bridge.
A Confederate battery positioned along Front Street in Franklin began to fire upon Wilson’s cavalry causing them to temporarily draw back. Lee’s men rushed to destroy the pontoon and railroad bridges to prevent the Federal troops from crossing. Given this brief respite, Lee ordered the immediate evacuation of Franklin. No longer having the bridges available, Wilson’s men hastened to the nearest fords to beat the rising water. Meanwhile, additional Federal troops entered Franklin from the west. Around 1:00 p.m., the Confederate rear guard under the command of Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee began to withdraw toward Winstead Hill south of Franklin. As some of Wilson’s cavalrymen fired volleys towards them, a shell tore into Lee’s boot breaking several bones in his foot. Despite his injury, Lee remained in command as the Confederates withdrew south down Columbia Pike. Wilson regrouped his forces and sent troops down Carter’s Creek, Lewisburg and Columbia Pikes in pursuit of the Confederates. Federal troops traveling down Columbia Pike quickly gained on the Rebels who maintained a line of battle as they headed toward Spring Hill. Around 4:00 p.m. the Confederate rear guard formed a line about one mile north of the West Harpeth River.
Wilson ordered a frontal attack on the Confederate line and sent brigades to swing around the line’s flank. Around 200 cavalrymen swiftly advanced south down Columbia Pike toward the center of the Confederate line in a column of fours, sabers drawn. With the flanking brigades, the Federal line stretched nearly one and half miles long. Some 700 Confederate infantrymen were posted along the road under the command of Major General Carter L. Stevenson. As the Federals attacked the fighting was brief but fierce. “They swooped down on us with pistols, carbines, and sabers, hewing, whacking, and shooting,” one Confederate officer later recalled. Stevenson’s men repelled this charge and formed three ragged lines of a hollow square as they withdrew with their bayonets drawn.
The Federal cavalrymen continued to strike against Stevenson’s troops as they made their way across the West Harpeth River. As the Confederates stopped to reorganize, Wilson’s men struck again. By this time darkness had fallen and both sides were confused. The Federal cavalry were nearly on top of the Rebel infantry when the firing began. The ensuing melee was brutal as most took the form of hand-to-hand combat with clubbed muskets and side arms. The darkness and the fact that many Confederates wore captured Federal overcoats added to the confusion. When additional units joined the Federals the Confederates were forced to retreat down Columbia Pike and abandoned three 12-pounder guns along the way. They soon encountered Major General Henry Clayton’s Brigade, who, after hearing the gunfire, had formed a line to assist their fellow Confederates. As Stevenson’s men joined them, the Rebels were attacked from the west by additional Federal cavalrymen. A quick round of fire from Clayton’s men soon repulsed the Federals, and the Confederates continued to withdraw. Exhausted, the Confederates withdrew to Thompson’s Station where they camped with the remainder of Lee’s troops.
A series of skirmishes were fought from the West Harpeth River south to the Tennessee River, as Wilson’s cavalry and the remainder of Thomas’ army pursued Hood’s army. The retreat would finally end on January 1, 1865 when Hood’s army crossed the Tennessee River. What was left of the Army of Tennessee was eventually sent to the Carolinas to contest Sherman’s advance.
Text credit: Franklin Battlefield Preservation Plan (n.d.): pp. 9-10
2nd Iowa Cav GAR badge
I visited a relic store in Decatur, GA recently and found this 2nd Iowa Cav GAR badge. It goes nicely with the tintype I recently sold of Milton Sweet, a 2nd Iowa Cav soldier. The 2nd Iowa Cav was part of the Battle of Franklin, especially Hood’s Retreat.
The badge (right) is for sale for $75.00. The image of Sweet (left) is sold.
12th TN Cav Lt Col involved in Hood’s Retreat
Charles C. Huefling was 29 years old when he enlisted. He was commissioned into Field & Staff at 1st Lt., on 1/11/1864 of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry (U.S.). He saw promotions to Major on 3/24/1864 and Lt Col on August 16, 1864. He also saw service in Company M, 4th US Army Cavalry.
Huffing saw action at Franklin and participated in Hood’s Retreat.
— Col.,George Spalding Lieut.-Cols. Charles C. Huefling, John S. Kirwan, Maj s., Sater Boland, Jason A. Bradshaw. James W. Spalding.
This regiment was organized by companies, the first of which was mustered into service Aug. 24, 1863. On Feb. 22, 1864, six companies had been mustered, and George Spalding was commissioned lieutenant-colonel.
The regiment was then assigned to Gen. Gillem’s division and was placed on guard duty on the Nashville & Northwestern railroad, where it remained until April, 1864. During the remainder of the year the regiment was in active service almost continuously.
It was one of the most efficient regiments in opposing Wheeler on his raid through Middle Tennessee and had several severe engagements with portions of his command. In the latter part of September it marched to contest the approach of Gen. Forrest, with whom it was several times engaged with considerable loss.
It was also active in the campaign against Hood, participating in the battles at Lawrenceburg, Campbellsville, Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville. From Nashville the regiment was in the advance in pursuit of Hood and fired the last shot at the enemy as he crossed the Tennessee River at Bainbridge.
On Feb. 8, 1865, the regiment went into camp at Eastport, Miss., where it remained until May 11. It was then transferred from the 2nd to the 1st brigade under the command of Bvt. Brig-Gen. George Spalding, who had been commissioned colonel upon the completion of the regiment Aug. 16, 1864, and ordered to St. Louis.
It was there remounted and refitted and sent to Fort Leavenworth, at which place, after having performed some escort and scout duty through northern Kansas and southern Nebraska, it was mustered out Oct. 7.
It returned to Nashville and was there finally paid and discharged Oct. 24, 1865.